3D- Printing

Being invented in the beginning of the 1990s and patented in 2004, the additive manufacturing or 3D- printing can not be considered a brand new technology. But it wasn‘t until 2010 that entrepreneurs, and scientist grasped the potential of the additive manufacturing for a variety of scientific and industrial branches that will at some point lead to the so called industrial revolution 4.0. This new revolution will be defined by a wave of technologies and ideas that are creating a computer-driven manufacturing environment that will change global trade patterns and revive manufacturing in high-wage countries such as the United States and Europe. According to a report by the Boston Consulting Group in 2010, 30% of America‘s exports from China could be domestically produced by 2020. This will lead to small, nimble manufacturing operations using highly sophisticated new tools and new materials instead of stretched-out global supply chains connected to a web of distant giant factories. The real opportunity is in the growth of highly specialized, highly advanced urban microfactories and in legions of small entrepreneurial ventures making old things in new ways, as well as producing new products and custom-made items. Technological advances now allow manufacturers to invent new ways of fabricating things that represent an extreme departure from the classic production-line model and the additive manufacturing—a process of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model is by far the most signifcant of these new manufacturing technologies. Furthermore, additive manufacturing makes it possible to create designs or structures that weren‘t feasible using the two traditional ways of making things: milling (sculpting material out of a solid block) and casting (pouring liquid material that hardens into a mold) and enables the creation of materials with multiple parts and moving components without assembly.